Mistakes in behavior are often impulsive habits. Acting out without thinking becomes a way of being. “I cause a lot of trouble; that is who I am.” By finding themselves do it, being talked about or kicked out for doing it, and maybe a bunch of long lectures for doing it, too. “I know it’s not so good to do that all the time, but I can’t really help it.” A resonance of habit, an endless knot, keeps coming round again even though the results aren’t too good. We all know it can be hard for anyone to step off current habits and take a step in a new direction.
Let’s offer the possibility of getting off the endless knot. Let’s warmly provide alternate actions that with time for a bit of practice can alter habits that cause problems.
Imagine that troublesome person was you. You keep finding yourself in trouble, coming around again to trouble, when someone who cares about you offers a constructive way to act just after you made that mistake again. You try this other thing, and they keep after you for a few additional repetitions. Would you accept a warm, supportive opportunity to practice a few more times without being punished? Most people accept that help.
Positive Practice procedure is to stop everything immediately after a mistake is made, provide an example of the correct or more appropriate thing to do or say in that setting, and invite three more repetitions before going on with life. No anger. No disapproval. Full support.
A group of children run into the classroom at high speed and some adult yells, “Walking feet!” I would be tempted to ask the adult, “How’s that ‘walking feet’ thing working out for you? Has it stopped the running?”
Positive Practice requires the children to go back to the doorway and walk into the classroom calmly. “I invite you to return to the doorway and walk into the classroom calmly. One. Now back to the doorway again. Two. Two more times. Back to doorway and back in. Three. OK. One more time. Four. There we go. You got it.”
I hold up four fingers as the signal. Each repeat lowers a finger. At the end I say something like “That works better.”
When I first tried this with children, I was surprised at how well it worked. The literature on Positive Practice — which you can easily find —said to require 10 repetitions, so I did. I soon found that making the person do something more than 4 times felt bossy and artificial, so I dropped it to 5. With some experience I found 4 to be about right. “Right” meant (1) 4 repetitions dramatically reduced the occurrence of the mistake, and (2) I felt myself being open, connected, and warmly on the child’s side.
Having used Positive Practice dozens of times, I have become convinced that children want to behave in more effective ways. There seems to be no other explanation for their willingness to practice a better way and then to change to that better way amazingly quickly. Every child I have used Positive Practice with has readily complied; not one has refused. Ever. Year after year, I hear the same reports from my students, too.
A child sneezes into the air without covering. Using Positive Practice one holds up 4 fingers and has the child fake sneeze into the inside of their elbow four times.
I see a child wipe her drooling nose with her sleeve. I invite the child to walk from where she stands over to the tissue box, pull a tissue, wipe her nose, toss the tissue into the waste bin, wash her hands, and return. Then I have her do the whole sequence a second, third, and fourth time.
A child roughly pushes another child aside to gain access to the block shelf. Positive Practice recreates that circumstance with the pushee and invites the pusher to say “excuse me”, move around, come back, say it again, move around, come back, say it again, move around, come back, say it again, and move around. Four repetitions.
On a walk down the street a child in your group sees a flower in someone’s garden and picks it. The group stops. The child practices 4 ways to adore the flower: smell it, touch it gently, say “This is pretty.” “Look at the colors.” “I wish I could keep it.” “If I pick it, it kills it.” After the child practices 4 alternatives, the group proceeds down the street.
A child pushes the grocery cart at high speed down the aisle. Positive Practice is to push the cart down the aisle at a calm speed four times: down and back, down and back.
A child grabs a toy from another child. Instead of saying “Use your words”, give the child the words. “Could I have that when you’re done?” Invite him to say something along those lines 4 times.
In a crossing a busy street a child in your group drops her partner’s hand and wanders outside of the marked crosswalk. The middle of a busy street may not be a good time for Positive Practice. Sometime soon you find a street crossing with no traffic and practice four times staying hand-in-hand with a partner and remaining inside the marked crosswalk.
Not Included Consequences: Overcorrection & Satiation
Some may find in the literature the idea of overcorrection, which is an aversive experience distinct from positive practice, even though the terms are often confused. I leave it out, because we have already covered aversives.
Satiation, which requires the child to do the mistake repeatedly, can also be found in the literature. It is in violation of my values and even my ethics to make a child practice an unfortunate, habitual mistake over and over, like these sad examples.
- Have a hitting child hit a punching bag for hitting others.
- Have a spitting child spit over and over into the toilet for spitting outside.
- Have a biting child bite a teething ring over and over for biting others.
This is negative practice, coercion practice for the adult, and obedience practice for the child. Positive Practice offers a new way to behave, so a person will be more likely to choose it at the appropriate time. How could negative practice ever do that?
All six alternative consequences are now complete.